Las relative clauses u oraciones en relativo son aquellas que ejercen la función de oración subordinada en relación a la oración principal.
En el post de hoy os las explicaremos con detenimiento cuáles son las relative clauses y sus usos:
1- RELATIVE CLAUSES:
- RELATIVE PRONOUNS
Relative clauses are introduced by a relative pronoun. The relative pronouns are:
–Who: for people.
-Whom: for people.
–Which: for things or animals.
–That: for people, animals, or things.
–Whose: for people, animals or things.
–Where: for places.
–When: for time.
2- DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES:
The relative pronouns that are used in defining relative clauses are:
Who/that: The woman who/that plays tennis with us is John’s mum.
Whom/that: The man whom/that I met at the party is her brother.
Which/that: The car which/that is outside is mine.
Whose: She is the artist whose paintings are very popular.
Where: The Village where she lives is near Vila-real.
When/that: That was the day when/that I met Mary.
Why/that: This is not the reason why I called.
Defining relative clauses provide the information that is necessary in a clause. Without this, the clause would not have a complete meaning. Look at the example:
The man who used to live next door has moved to London.
If we leave out the defining relative clause, only the main clause remains: ……..The defining relative clause, ie: who used to live next door, is necessary for the clause to have a complete meaning: It answers the question: Which man?
3- CONTACT CLAUSES
When the relative pronoun is the object of the defining relative clause, then usually, we omit it. We thus convert the defining relative clause into a contact clause.
He’s the boy. I met him at the party.
He’s the boy who I met at the party.
He’s the boy I met at the party.
When the relative pronoun is the subject of the relative sentence, it cannot be omitted.
I talked to the man who owns the shop.
I talked to the man owns the shop.
Whose is never omitted:
That’s the girl whose father is a famous artist
That’s the girl father is a famous artist
4- NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES
The relative pronouns that we use in non-defining relative clauses are:
Who: Albert Einstein, who was a well-known scientist, loved playing the vionlin.
Who/Whom: The man, who/whom I met yesterday, is coming the party.
Which: The African elephant, which is the largest land mammal, is in danger of extinction.
Whose: Mr and Mrs Smith, whose daughter comes to my class, are coming for lunch today.
Where: I would like to travel to London, where my sister is living.
When: She was born in 1969, when the first astronauts landed on the moon.
Non-defining relative clauses provide additional information about somebody or something. They are not necessary in a clause in order for it to have a complete meaning.
Non-defining relative clauses always go between two commas when they are in the middle of the clause.
My mother, who is a teacher, lives in London.
If the non-defining relative clause is at the end of the clause, we put a comma before it.
I asked John, who said he wasn’t going to come to the party.
-Relative pronouns cannot be left out of non-defining relative clauses.
The television, which I bought yesterday, costs a lot of money.
The television, I bought yesterday, costs a lot of money.
In non-defining relative clauses which or who cannot be replaced by that.
The house, which used to be a museum, was built 1000 years ago.
The house, that used to be a museum, was built 1000 years ago.
Complete the sentences with a relative pronoun:
- I talked to the girl … car had broken down in front of the shop.
- Mr Richards, …is a taxi driver, lives on the corner.
- We often visit our aunt in Norwich … is in East Anglia.
- This is the girl … comes from Spain.
- That’s Peter, the boy … has just arrived at the airport.
- Thank you very much for your e-mail … was very interesting.
- The man … father is a professor, forgot his umbrella.
- The children, … shouted in the street, are not from our school.
- The car, … driver is a young man, is from Ireland.
- What did you do with the money … your mother lent you?
- Everybody was talking about the robbery … happened last week.
- We arrived at a nice beach, … we could swim and lie on the sun.
- Smithsfield is a small village … people live a quiet life.
- What is the name of the prison … Nelson Mandela stayed?
- Someone stole my money belt, … contained my wallet and all my documents.
- We visited the church … is in the middle of the square.
- La Albufera is a protected area of land … you can see a lot of interesting wildlife.
- They finally found the murderer, … was hiding in a small village.
- Yesterday I met John and Mary, … are my brother’s friends.
- Have you seen the new advertisement … was shown on TV last night?
- The patient, … had a serious disease, was taken to hospital immediately.
- The police followed the criminals, … ran away through the back door.
- Ants are small insects … live in big groups.
- We have lost the suitcase … we put all our presents.
- They found the weapon … was used in the crime.
- This dress is made of silk, … is a very expensive and delicate material.
- The security guard … was working that night didn’t see anything.
- The victim called the police, … arrested the criminal immediately.
- I know a person … can speak seven languages.
- We left our backpacks, … were very heavy, in the youth hostel.
Grammar time 6