fbpx

Grammar: Relative clauses

Y hoy un post con la explicación de las oraciones de relativo que vimos el otro día en clase:

1- RELATIVE CLAUSES:

RELATIVE PRONOUNS

Relative clauses are introduced by a relative pronoun. The relative pronouns are:

Who: for people.

-Whom: for people.

Which: for things or animals.

That: for people, animals, or things.

Whose: for people, animals or things.

Where: for places.

When: for time.

Why/that.

relative clauses

2- DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES:

The realative pronouns that are used in defining relative clauses are:

Who/that: The woman who/that plays tennis with us is John’s mum.

Whom/that: The man whom/that I met at the party is her brother.

Which/that: The car which/that is outside is mine.

Whose: She is the artist whose paintings are very popular.

Where: The Village where she lives is near Vila-real.

When/that: That was the day when/that I met Mary.

Why/that: This is not the reason why I called.

Defining relative clauses provide the information that is necessary in a clause. Without this, the clause would not have a complete meaning. Look at the example:

The man who used to live next door has moved to London.

If we leave out the defining relative clause, only the main clause remains: ……..The defining relative clause, ie: who used to live next door, is necessary for the clause to have a complete meaning: It answers the question: Which man?

3- CONTACT CLAUSES

When the relative pronoun is the object of the defining relative clause, then usually, we omit it. We thus convert the defining relative clause into a contact clause.

He’s the boy. I met him at the party.

He’s the boy who I met at the party.

He’s the boy I met at the party.

When the relative pronoun is the subject of the relative sentence, it cannot be omitted.

I talked to the man who owns the shop.

I talked to the man owns the shop.

Whose is never omitted:

That’s the girl whose father is a famous artist

That’s the girl father is a famous artist

4- NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES

The relative pronouns that we use in non-defining relative clauses are:

Who: Albert Einstein, who was a well-known scientist, loved playing the vionlin.

Who/Whom: The man, who/whom I met yesterday, is coming the party.

Which: The African elephant, which is the largest land mammal, is in danger of extinction.

Whose: Mr and Mrs Smith, whose daughter comes to my class, are coming for lunch today.

Where: I would like to travel to London, where my sister is living.

When: She was born in 1969, when the first astronauts landed on the moon.

Non-defining relative clauses provide additional information about somebody or something. They are not necessary in a clause in order for it to have a complete meaning.

Non-defining relative clauses always go between two commas when they are in the middle of the clause.

My mother, who is a teacher, lives in London.

If the non-defining relative clause is at the end of the clause, we put a comma before it.

I asked John, who said he wasn’t going to come to the party.

-Relative pronouns cannot be left out of non-defining relative clauses.

The television, which I bought yesterday, costs a lot of money.

The television, I bought yesterday, costs a lot of money.

In non-defining relative clauses which or who cannot be replaced by that.

The house, which used to be a museum, was built 1000 years ago.

The house, that used to be a museum, was built 1000 years ago.

Complete the sentences with a relative pronoun:

  1. I talked to the girl car had broken down in front of the shop.

  2. Mr Richards,is a taxi driver, lives on the corner.

  3. We often visit our aunt in Norwich is in East Anglia.

  4. This is the girlcomes from Spain.

  5. That’s Peter, the boyhas just arrived at the airport.

  6. Thank you very much for your e-mailwas very interesting.

  7. The manfather is a professor, forgot his umbrella.

  8. The children, shouted in the street, are not from our school.

  9. The car, driver is a young man, is from Ireland.

  10. What did you do with the moneyyour mother lent you?

  11. Everybody was talking about the robbery … happened last week.

  12. We arrived at a nice beach, … we could swim and lie on the sun.

  13. Smithsfield is a small village … people live a quiet life.

  14. What is the name of the prison … Nelson Mandela stayed?

  15. Someone stole my money belt, … contained my wallet and all my documents.

  16. We visited the church … is in the middle of the square.

  17. La Albufera is a protected area of land … you can see a lot of interesting wildlife.

  18. They finally found the murderer, … was hiding in a small village.

  19. Yesterday I met John and Mary, … are my brother’s friends.

  20. Have you seen the new advertisement … was shown on TV last night?

  21. The patient, … had a serious disease, was taken to hospital immediately.

  22. The police followed the criminals, … ran away through the back door.

  23. Ants are small insects … live in big groups.

  24. We have lost the suitcase … we put all our presents.

  25. They found the weapon … was used in the crime.

  26. This dress is made of silk, … is a very expensive and delicate material.

  27. The security guard … was working that night didn’t see anything.

  28. The victim called the police, … arrested the criminal immediately.

  29. I know a person … can speak seven languages.

  30. We left our backpacks, … were very heavy, in the youth hostel.

SOURCES:

Gramar time 6

http://www.englisch-hilfen.de/en/exercises/pronouns/relative_pronouns.htm

http://www.montsemorales.com/gramatica/RelativeBU4-7.htm

thanks for reading